It is the purpose of this article to address the identity of the auxiliary Asiatic troops mentioned in the Elephantine Stele of Sethnakhte, founder of the Twentieth Dynasty. The identity of these auxiliaries will help to illuminate the political relations between Egypt and the Levant in the first quarter of the twelfth century bce. Furthermore, it is claimed that the royal texts, reliefs, and topographical lists of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu dealing with campaigning in Northern Syria—usually regarded as mere copies of earlier kings’ exploits—are genuine and shed light on a campaign Ramesses III conducted against Amurru and Hittite cities before his fifth regnal year, probably extending to the Euphrates. It may be that both Sethnakhte and Ramesses III were referring to the same Asiatic enemies.
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