Daniel 11:17 calls Cleopatra I Syra bat-hanašym, “The Ultimate Woman,” based on the kind of reverence exemplified by the portrayal of the Egyptian queen as the incarnation of Isis. Despite the attempts of versions and commentators to obliterate the mythological nuances, Dan 11:13–18 can be understood in its Hellenistic historical context, allowing us to see the Ptolemaic text that forms the basis of Daniel 11. The passage proclaims that Cleopatra foiled her father Antiochus III’s deceitful plan to control Egypt. This Syrian princess and Egyptian queen navigated the conflict between the two kingdoms in a quite remarkable way; she was, indeed, the Ultimate Woman.
Book of Daniel; Hellenistic History; Ptolemaic Dynasty; Seleucid Dynasty; Cleopatra
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