Egypt is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible numerous times, but despite multiple studies, the Egyptian background referred to in the Bible remains historically elusive. This is due to the fact that Egyptian details from the biblical source (names, epithets) can often be correlated with more than one period in Egypt’s history. These difficulties have prevented the Egyptian aspect from becoming a major factor in biblical studies. To rectify this state, it is here suggested to employ a different methodology: rather than seeking parallels to the Bible’s Egyptian details, one should ask how and when these details came to be known in the biblical traditions of Judah and Israel. The article will discuss possible scenarios of transmission as viewed through the archaeological record pertaining to the relations between Egypt and Israel during the Iron Age.
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