New evidence illuminates several problems in the historical geography of Nubia and its political relations with Egypt. At Gebel Uweinat, an inscription naming the country of Yam has changed what we know of the political and cultural geography of the peoples south of Egypt in the late Third Millennium. Regions of Northeastern Africa have been explored, such as the southern Atbai and the Fourth Cataract of the Nile, which is now fairly well known. Connections between these areas and lower Nubia help to understand the development of the archaeological culture known as the Pan Graves. The discovery of a new inscription in Upper Egypt and at Gebel Uweinat have challenged our assumptions about the scale of the Kushite state and its geography in the Second Intermediate Period. The changes are substantial, but they can be integrated with earlier evidence to produce a credible picture of Nubian-Egyptian relations.
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