In recent decades, evidence of a two-way relationship between First Dynasty Egypt and the Early Bronze Age II communities of southern Levant progressively emerged. The ongoing investigation hints at a branched network of exchanges between Egypt and the Levant, which was operational at the dawn of the earliest Levantine urbanization and involved multiple Levantine centers. While a complete reassessment of Egyptian–south Levantine relations in the EB II/ESL 4 is beyond its scope, this paper reviews evidence from two key south-Levantine sites: Tell es-Sultan and Tell el-Far‘ah North. The paper examines the amount, range, and find context of the Egyptian and Egyptian-style objects from Tell es-Sultan and Tell el-Far‘ah North, and seeks to assess their role in these early urbanized societies.
Egyptian–south Levantine interaction; Early Bronze II; Tell es-Sultan; Tell el-Far‘ah North; Egyptian and Egyptian-style objects; social differentiation
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