Pharaonic Egyptian needs for waterborne transport surpassed the convenience of geography. Several obstacles— chiefly the lack of a water passage from the Nile Valley to the Red Sea and the unnavigable waters of the Second Cataract—had to be overcome. The Egyptians achieved this by techniques of hull construction, by architectural means, and by the employment of vehicles. Vehicles also functioned for the ceremonial transport of boats and boat- shaped shrines. This paper is a survey of the methods of overland boat transportation during the pharaonic period, with an emphasis on the archaeological and iconographic evidence.
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