This paper aims to give an overview of the current state of research on (contemporaneous) inscriptional evidence for a historical chronology of the 3rd and 4th dynasties, to explore the impact of different modes of interpreting this evidence on radiocarbon dates from Egypt, and to consider possible synchronizations between Egyptian history and the transitions from Early Bronze Age III to IV in the Southern Levant. Therefore, the currently available data are re-evaluated, and a model for a biennial cattle count in the early Old Kingdom is proposed. In order to specify the EB III–IV transition, recent radiocarbon sequences from nine different sites in the Southern Levant are surveyed.
chronology; 3rd Millennium BCE; Old Kingdom; Early Bronze Age; Southern Levant; 3rd Dynasty; 4th Dynasty; Sneferu; Khufu; Palermo Stone; Turin Canon
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